Showing posts with label Mediocre skills. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Mediocre skills. Show all posts
7 important truth on Man in the middle attack


Wanna know all the stuff you need to know about Man in the middle(MITM) attack? including the basic concepts, types, prevention, etc. If your answer is yes, I suggest you read further.



This particular topic is one of the most asked cyber-security questions on the net. Just like most search terms, I'm gonna break it this way;


  1. What is Man in the middle attack?
  2. How does it work?
  3. Typical example
  4. Real life instances
  5. Different forms of MITM attack?
  6. What are the types of MITM attack?
  7. How do I prevent a MITM attack?

To better understand this concept, you'll be reading this from a victim's perspective rather than the attacker. Pay attention!


1. What is Man in the middle attack?

A man-in-the-middle attack is a known cybercrime where a malicious actor secretly inserts himself into an online conversation between two individuals(sometimes more), impersonates both parties involved and accesses information that is being sent by the two parties to one another.

This type of cyber attack basically requires three players to be carried out; the victim, the individual/s the victim is trying to communicate with, and the hacker(Man in the middle), who ’s trying to intercept the victim’s communications with the purpose of getting critical information.

7 important truth on Man in the middle attack


Note that the victim in this scenario isn’t aware of the man in the middle.

A practical example of a MITM attack is active eavesdropping. In this example, the hacker attempts independent links with the victims and conveys messages between them, making them think they're communicating directly with each other over a secure private connection, when in truth, the whole conversation is being controlled by the attacker.

MITM attack is one of the forms of session hijacking. Other forms similar to a MITM attack are:


  • Sidejacking - This involves sniffing of data packets with the purpose of stealing session cookies and in the process hijack a user’s session. These cookies login information in some cases are unencrypted, even if the website was secure.



  • Evil Twin - This can be called a rogue Wi-Fi network appearing to be from a legitimate network. When a user joins a rogue network, an attacker can launch a MITM attack, thereby intercepting useful data sent between you and the network.



  • Sniffing - This is when a malicious actor uses a readily available tool or program to intercept data being transmitted from or to your device.


2. How does Man in the middle attack work?

How does this work? what actually happens in the background is that the hacker manages to have some form of control over the network topology thereby being able to insert himself in-between the client and the server.

A befitting example of this is DNS spoofing. The attacker convinces your computer system that www.amazon.com doesn’t map to any of the Amazon server IPs, but to his(the attacker) server IP. The client not knowing what's going on then connects to the attacker instead of Amazon. The hacker can then decide to forward the client’s traffic to Amazon servers or not

Address Resolution Protocol(ARP) is another interesting example. This is used to map a network address to a physical address like a MAC address. An IPv4 address is an example of the network address.
7 important truth on Man in the middle attack
Check out the ARP cache of one’s computer system.
ARP comes with a flaw though, it being that you can't verify that the ARP packet is telling the truth.

Check this out;

The Router asks, “Who and where is 192.168.1.103?”, a system at 192.168.1.105 replies, “192.168.1.103 is at ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff (192.168.1.105’s MAC)”. The router doesn't know that this packet is coming from a totally different system. For the router, 192.168.1.103 is 192.168.1.105. This is known as ARP spoofing.

So what basically happens in a man in the middle attack is that the attacker continuously sends ARP packets to the victim claiming that the attacker’s system is the router.
Here, the attacker is sending ARP replies to the victim (192.168.1.17) saying that he's the router. It says 192.168.1.1 is at 8:0:27:f1:77:4e(attackers MAC)
The victim’s computer goes ahead and sends all the packets to the attacker’s computer, all the while thinking it is actually the router and the attacker then forwards those messages to the actual router. Editing and taking the information he needs in the process.

There’s a more complex and sophisticated MITM attack involving Border gateway protocol(BGP) where you can divert the routing to the internet for an entire domain.

3. Typical example?

7 important truth on Man in the middle attack

An example? Let’s say your friend receives an email that seems to be from his bank, encouraging him to sign into his account dashboard to confirm his contact information. 

He clicks on a link(saying maybe click here to sign in) in the email and is redirected to what looks like his bank’s website. Then he signs in and carries out the requested task and in the process unknowingly giving out his info.

In this scenario, the MITM sent your friend the email, making it appear to be legitimately from his bank. This particular attack involves phishing i.e tricking him to click on a link in the email that appears to come from his bank. 



Note that the hacker had to create a replica of your bank's website

Another analogy:

Let's say Debra and Justice are having a conversation online; Mary intends to eavesdrop on the conversation but at the same time remain transparent.

Mary could tell Debra that she is Justice and tell Justice that she is Debra. This would consequently make Debra believe she’s currently texting Justice while revealing her version of the conversation to Debra.

Mary then gathers needed information from the conversation, alter and twist the response,  and pass the message across to Justice (who still thinks he’s having a good talk with Debra). As a result, Mary transparently hijacked their entire conversation.

4. Real life instances of a MITM attack?

Enough of made up scenarios. Let's look at a few real life man in the middle attacks;

7 important truth on Man in the middle attack

  • In 2013, the Browser owned by Nokia Xpress was made known to be decrypting HTTPS traffic on the Nokia's proxy servers, enabling the company to access its customers' encrypted browser traffic. Nokia, however, said that the content was only stored temporarily and they have technical and organizational measures put in place to prevent unwarranted access to private information. cite

  • In 2003, a remarkable non-cryptographic man in the middle attack was carried out by a Belkin wireless network router. Periodically, it hijacks HTTP connections being routed through it to a destination and self-respond as the intended server. After the reply is sent, instead of the of the web page the user requested, was a commercial for a Belkin product. After several complaints from technically literate users, this particular 'feature' was removed from the router's firmware. cite
Other notable mentions are;
  • Comcast uses a man in the middle attacks to inject JavaScript code into 3rd party web pages, displaying their ads on top of the pages. cite

  • NSA impersonation of Google. cite

5. Different forms of Man in the middle attack

MITM attacks are of two forms; one that involves malware, and another that involves physical proximity to the proposed target. The first form, just like the fake bank scenario above, is also referred to as a man in the browser attack.

  • Man in the browser attack

With a MITB attack, the attacker requires a way to inject malicious programme into the victim’s computer system. This can be achieved by conducting a phishing attack.

The malware installs on the browser without the user ’s consent and knowledge. The malware then records the data/information sent between websites and the victim, such as online shops, and forwards it to the attacker.


Going back to the forms of MITM attack. Hackers execute a MITM attack in 2 phases — interception and decryption.

In a traditional man in the middle attack, attackers need access to a vulnerable Wi-Fi router. These types of connections are likely to be found in public places with free Wi-Fi hotspots, and in some cases, in some people’s homes, i.e when they fail to protect their network properly. Attackers will go ahead to scan the router in search for specific vulnerabilities such as a weak password.


Once a vulnerability is found, attackers use some hacking tools to intercept and read the victim’s transmitted data


A successful MITM attack doesn't stop after it intercepts. The victim’s encrypted data needs to be unencrypted, that way, the attacker can read and act upon it.

6. What are the types of man in the middle attack?

IP spoofing 

Each computer online has an internet protocol (IP) address, which is somewhat similar to the street address of your home. By spoofing an IP address(changing the IP), a hacker is able to trick you into thinking you’re interacting with someone or a website you’re not, probably allowing the attacker to have access to sensitive information you’d otherwise not share.

DNS spoofing

Domain Name Server(DNS) spoofing is a type of MITM attack that forces a victim to a fake website instead of the real one the victim intends to visit. Victims of DNS spoofing think they’re visiting a safe, trusted site, instead, they’re unknowingly interacting with a fraudster. Here, the attacker's mission is to divert traffic from the real website and capture user login details.


HTTPS(Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) spoofing

When doing online transactions, be on the lookout for “HTTPS” in the website URL, rather than “HTTP”. This shows that the site is secure and trusted. A hacker can trick your browser into believing it’s visiting a secure site when it’s not.


SSL hijacking

If your computer connects to an unsecured server specified by “HTTP”, the server can on its own redirect you to the secure version of the server, specified by “HTTPS.”

Connecting to a secure and trusted server basically means standard security protocols are in order, protecting all the data you have in common with that server.

SSL is short for Secure Sockets Layer, a protocol that sets up encrypted links between the web server and your browser.

In an SSL hijacking, the hacker uses a different computer and a secure server to intercept all the data passing through the server to the user’s computer.


Email hijacking

Attackers can target email accounts of financial institutions like banks. Once access is gained, they are able to monitor transactions between the customers and the institution.

The attackers can then decide to spoof the bank’s email address and email to customers. This convinces the victim to follow the hackers’ instructions instead of the bank’s. As a result, an unwitting victim may end up sending money to the attacker.


Stealing browser cookies

To better grab the concept of a stolen browser cookie, you first need to understand what one is; a browser cookie is simply a  piece of information a website stores on your computer system.

online retailers like Amazon might store the personal info you enter and cart items you’ve selected on a cookie, that way, you need not re-enter same information when you return.

A hacker can steal your browser cookies and gain access to sensitive information.

7. How do I protect my system from a MITM attack?

7 important truth on Man in the middle attack


Strong WEP/WAP Encryption on Access Points

Having a very strong encryption mechanism on wireless access points(WAP) helps prevent unwanted persons from connecting to your network. A somewhat weak encryption mechanism allows a hacker to easily brute-force his way into a network and starts MITM attacking. 

The stronger the encryption, the safer.


Virtual Private Network

VPNs is used to create a secure browsing environment for information within a LAN(local area network). They create a subnet using key-based encryption for secure communication. If this is done properly, the attacker will not be able to decipher the traffic in the VPN even if he happens to get on a network that is shared.


Force HTTPS

HTTPS is used to safely communicate over HTTP with the help of public-private key exchange. This helps prevent an attacker from making sense from the data he may be sniffing. 

Webmasters should not provide HTTP alternatives.


Public Key Pair Based Authentication

A man in the middle attack involves spoofing something. RSA public key pair authentication can be used in numerous layers of the stack in ensuring that the people or website you are in communication with are actually the people you want to be communicating with.



Summary

It is all scary from a victim's perspective of man in the middle (MITM) attack. Sometimes times the fear is due to knowing little or no info on the topic. 

After reading through this, most users might panic with the knowledge that they have been keeping their devices vulnerable and might have fallen victim to an attack. The best thing to do in such a scenario is to keep calm.


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Hi there✋. 


Have you ever wondered how easy or possible it is to hack into your pal's computer? Or maybe you know it's possible but do not know the steps to follow. 



I say to you; bring out your note if you ain't with your computer. Keep reading lad.




I've always been asked by viewers on how to hack a computer. I'll be showing you one of my tricks. This trick is done in 4 steps;

  1. Getting started
  2. Trial and error
  3. Gathering necessary information
  4. Getting in

Before you keep reading though, i'll suggest you take a look at our disclaimer page.
Let's get to work!



How to hack into A Computer connected to the same network(Lan)

This trick is perfect for those working in an office where everyone is connected to the same network. It can also be carried out in a College.

What you need

  • Windows OS
  • Cain and Abel

The obvious first thing to do is find a Computer to hack into. You can begin if you're connected to the WAN or plugged into the LAN.

Open up your Cain and Abel. Get it here if you don't have it installed,

This hacking program has a built-in sniffer feature that looks for all available IP addresses in a local subnet. 

Now pay attention!

Step 1

Getting started!

Click on the sniffer tab after the software opens. Click the Start/Stop sniffer, and click the blue cross.

5 Easy steps to Hack Into a Computer



Another window will pop up after this, select “All host in my subnet” and click ok.


It'll now begin to scan

5 Easy steps to Hack Into a Computer


The Computer names, IP's and mac addresses will display. Write them down and try to remember the IP address you wish to hack into. It's okay if you can't tell whether the IP address belongs to a Computer, modem, router etc.

The next step will tell you what to do.




Step 2

Trial and error

This stage is here in case you don't know if what you have is a Computer, printer, router or whatever else is connected to the WAN.

If you did get the IP address of the target though, I still recommend you read through this
section.

Click on the start menu, type in cmd, and click ok.

This will bring up the command prompt which is where you'll be doing most of the hacking.

Next, you'll be reading certain commands in quotes that you'll need to be input into the command prompt. Do not by any way put these commands in quotes. It won't work. I put quotes only to avoid confusing you.

Type in “ping (IP address of the target).” For example in this tutorial, “ping
192.168.1.103.”

This lets you know if the target is online or not

It will look something like this if the target is online.

5 Easy steps to Hack Into a Computer

It will look like this if the target is offline:

5 Easy steps to Hack Into a Computer

This hack can only be done if the target is online. So switch to a different target if it's not or wait for it to come online.

You'd wanna know how to crack a wifi password and a website

Step 3

Gathering necessary information.

Input this command “nbtstat –a (IP address of target).” A suitable example would be
“nbtstat –a 192.168.1.103.”

This will display if file sharing is enabled. If it is, it will give you the; currently logged on user,  computer name and workgroup.

5 Easy steps to Hack Into a Computer



Step 4

Getting In

It’s time!.

By now you should know that: your target is online, has file sharing, and the computer name.

Locate the shared drives or printers. Type “net view (IP Address of Target)”
Example for this tutorial would be: “net view 192.168.1.103”



You just found the share name. In this case, "C" is under the share name signalling that C is the only shared thing on the PC or computer.

To the right, "Disk" is displayed under Type. Meaning that it is the actual C DISK of the computer. The C DISK is most times an entire person’s hard drive.



If you observe carefully, for my hack I already used “K,” so now I use “G” instead. You may do the same for multiple hacks.

It will say “The command completed successfully.” if it worked.

You may have to go retrace your steps if it didn't.

Now open “my computer” under the start menu. There your recently created network
drive will be there.



Note that you won't be able to access this drive if you disconnect from the WAN or LAN. Hence the name Network Drive.

Don't worry though, you won't have to repeat the same procedure all over again since the drive will not be deleted after you disconnect. You can still access it whenever you reconnect.



Congratulations! You’re DONE HACKING!



Commands used;

  • PING
  • NBTSTAT -a (IP Address of Target)
  • NET VIEW (IP Address of Target)
  • NET USE K: (IP Address of Target)(SHARENAME)

Program used;

Cain and Abel.

Pretty easy right? this sums up the steps to hack into a Computer.




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7 top Hacker tools and software gadgets


Batman! Probably the Superhero with the most gadgets and tools. Without his numerous tools, he’ll probably won’t raise his shoulders high in the mist of fellow Heroes.




Same is said of a Hacker lad. Without the hacker tools, there’s very little he/she can do. There’s a saying that says; “a Hacker is as good as his tools”.


If you absolutely know nothing on hacking, then you'd be needing a beginners' guide.


This article tries to do justice to some of the gadgets a hacker should have in his toolkit, covering perhaps the favourite pentesting tools as used by various types of Hackers and geeks.


NOTE: Most of these gadgets ship with common pentesting Linus distro’s like BackBox or Kali Linux, so I think it proper you install a Linux hacking box.


Alright! In no specific order, below is the list of hacker tools I’ve compiled.




Disclaimer; post contains affiliate links.

  1.  THC Hydra(password cracking tool)

THC HYDRA Hacker tools and software gadgets

Most times abbreviated to simply Hydra. This is perhaps one of the most popular password cracking tool, topping it with a very experienced development team.


THC Hydra uses a dictionary or brute force attacks when trying various login combinations on a login page. This is basically a very fast and flexible login cracker which supports plenty of protocols.


Plus new modules are pretty easy to add. This tool is completely FREE and can be downloaded.


Features of THC Hydra hacker tool

This tool currently supports;

Ø  SOCKS5

Ø  VNC

Ø  POP3

Ø  IMAP

Ø  CVS

Ø  Cisco AAA

Ø  Cisco auth

Ø  Cisco enable

Ø  SSH2

Ø  TELNET

Ø  FTP

Ø  HTTP-GET

Ø  HTTP-HEAD

Ø  HTTPS-GET

Ø  HTTP-PROXY

Ø  LDAP2 and lots more



2. OWASP ZED(web vulnerability scanner)

OWASP ZED Hacker tools and software gadgets


If you’re relatively competent in Cybersecurity, then it’s highly likely you’re quite familiar with OWASP ZED, being one of the most popular OWASP projects.


When used as a proxy server, the ZED allows you to manipulate pretty much all the traffic that goes through it, including https traffics. Cool right?


This is largely considered as being the guide of web security. The OWASP ZED is an efficient hacking tool that finds vulnerabilities in web applications. The best part is that it can be used by both professional penetration testers and those new to application security.


Features of the OWASP ZED

Some of the built-in features of this hacker tool include;


Ø  Automated scanner

Ø  Passive scanner

Ø  Forced browsing

Ø  Fuzzer

Ø  Intercepting proxy server

Ø  Traditional and AJAX web crawlers

Ø  WebSocket support

Ø  Scripting languages

Ø  Plug-n-hack support


The architecture is plugin-based, and it also contains an online marketplace which allows updated features to be added. Plus its totally free.


I’d totally recommend you adding this to the list of your gadget.


3. NMAP(network mapper)

NMAP Hacker tools and software gadgets


The network mapper, a popular open source hacker tool mainly used for security auditing and network discovery, thus building a map of the network.


The tool uses IP packets to determine the hosts available on a network and the kind of services those hosts provide data about.


One of the core benefits of using NMAP is that you’ll be able to determine whether or not the network is in need of patching. There’s another version of this tool called Zenmap. This is actually the GUI version of NMAP, both performing almost the same.


I’d say; first learn NMAP, since it’s easier for beginners to learn. You can choose to move over to Zenmap when you feel like it.


NMAP is a multipurpose gadget which can function on many different OS including; BSD, Linux and Mac.

Features of NMAP


Ø  Port scanning

Ø  Version detection

Ø  OS detection

Ø  Host discovery

Ø  Scriptable interaction with the target

Ø  Auditing the security of a firewall

Ø  Network mapping

Ø  Finding and exploiting vulnerabilities in a network


How the result is reported


NMAP provides 4 output formats which are all saved to a file. All but the interactive output. Let’s take a look at different ways NMAP gives its output;


Ø  XML: This is a format that is processed by XML tools. Using XSLT, it can be further converted into an HTML report.


Ø  Interactive: Presented and updated when you run NMAP from the command line.


Ø  Normal: This is the output you see while operating NMAP from the command line.


Ø   Grepable: This is the output that is shaped to line-oriented processing gadget i.e awk, sed or grep.


Ø  Script kiddie: This is an amusing way to format the interactive output. In this type of output, you replace letters with visually alike number representations. E.g Interacting ports becomes int3eract1ng p0rtz


 4.  Keyllama USB Keylogger tools


Keyllama USB Keylogger

Arguably the most undetectable software out there, the Keyllama USB Keylogger is definitely the flash drive you don’t want anywhere near any of your computers.


As one of the leading names in Keyloggers, the Keyllama is used in settling legal matters where reliability is absolutely crucial. They centre on hardware-centric method, not relying on any software to carry out any hack, and activates immediately it is plugged in.


The Keyllama tool comes with a 16mb, 8mb or 4mb storage types. Topping it with an extremely low failure rate and is capable of storing quite a lot of data(not minding the storage size).


The coolest stuff about this Keylogger is that it can easily be inserted into wireless keyboards as well.

Design

Hacker tools and software gadgets

This cool hacker tool is designed to be discreet; appearing not more than a tiny USB memory key(it extends 1.8” from the back of your computer/machine).


I’d say it is the most minimalist looking keylogger on the market right now.

Security


This Keylogger assesses the data being transmitted by the keyboard, records all of it, then pushes the information back to the computer. There is utterly no way the software can detect this tool.


You’ll be needed to choose a password when you’re first setting it up. This password, however, isn’t just to allow you to access data, but also to set up a complex encrypted algorithm.


This is so, in the event that someone manages to get their hands on this Keylogger, they absolutely wouldn’t have any idea what information was inside. It’ll completely look like gibberish.


This is essential for hackers, as it combines swiftness and reliability. 


You can check it out right here on Amazon.


5. Metasploit penetration testing software

metasploit top Hacker tools and software gadgets


If you’re new to Metasploit, then think of it as a list of hacker tools and frameworks used to execute various tasks.


Metasploit along with NMAP is probably the two most common hacking software out there. This software is a must learn if you’re interested in venturing into penetration testing.


IT security courses such as CEH and OSCP always include a Metasploit component. Metasploit is a project that provides you with crucial information regarding computer security vulnerabilities and helps devise IDS testing and penetration testing strategies.


The Metasploit runs on Unix and Windows, but the easiest way to use this tool is to get a penetration testing arsenal that includes the Metasploit framework such as the OS, Kali Linux.


Metasploit framework


The steps for exploiting a system using the framework includes;

Ø  Choosing and setting up an exploit.

Ø  Optionally checking if the proposed target system is prone to the chosen exploit.

Ø  Choosing and setting up a payload.

Ø  Choosing the encoding method.

Ø  Executing the exploit.


This method, allowing the blending of exploits to any payload is the main driving factor of the Framework. It facilitates the task of payload writers, exploits writers and attackers.


One can’t really explain everything there is on this subject. There’re tons of good Metasploit information on the net, but probably not as good as this book, as it is well written and guides perfectly.

You'd probably need to know some list of hacker terms.

6. John the Ripper(hacker password cracking tool)

john the ripper hacker tools and softwares gadgets


The coolest name yet for a Hacker software. Often abbreviated as ‘JTR’, or called just ‘John’, this piece of software is designed to crack very complicated passwords. This tool is very similar to THC Hydra.


John is a common password cracking pentesting tool that is used mainly when performing a dictionary attack. It combines various password crackers into a single package, includes a customizable cracker and autodetects password hash types.


This free password hacking software was first created for just the Unix OS. It now runs on 15 other platforms, 11 of which are architecture-specific versions of Unix.


The JTR runs against plenty encrypted password formats, including different hash types crypt password. These are commonly found on the Windows NT/2000/XP/2003 LM hash, Unix versions and the Kerberos AFS.


If you’re a bit confused between THC Hydra and John the Ripper, then think of JTR as an offline password cracker, while Hydra is an online cracker.


7. Cain and Abel Hacking software


cain and abel hacker tools and software gadget

Often abbreviated as Cain, this is a password recovery tool for Windows. It’s able to recover many types of passwords using techniques such as cracking various password hashes(using dictionary attack), network packet sniffing, cryptanalysis and brute force.


This hacking tool is often mentioned in variety of hacking tutorials. Cain and Abel were primarily built as a password recovery tool for Microsoft, but it can also be used in a variety of uses.

Some features of Cain and Abel


Ø  WEP cracking

Ø  Calculating hashes

Ø  Revealing password boxes

Ø  Uncovering cached passwords

Ø  Ability to record VoIP conversations

Ø  Dumping protected storage passwords


Stopping here doesn't give accolade to the several hacking tools and software out there. Some great ones weren't named due to them having very similar characteristics with the above mentioned.

Nevertheless, let's check out the other tools worth mentioning, shall we?


  • Wireshark(web vulnerability scanner)

  • Aircrack-ng(password cracking tool)

  • Nikto website vulnerability scanner

  • Maltego(Digital forensics)

  • DS logic pro(logic analyzer)

  • oclHashcat(password cracking tool)

  • Nessus vulnerability scanner

  • Social Engineering tool kit(framework for simulating multiple types of attacks)

The list goes on and on. 


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